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Cesran International

Recent Articles

  • According to a survey conducted in 2012 by the Arab Barometer, 84.5% of Algerians are not interested in politics and 52% do not have faith in the political system1. Such lack of confidence might suggest that Algeria is ready to engage in its own Arab Spring. However, almost a year and a half has passed

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  • Turkey And Peacebuilding In Africa: Leadership, Youth And Conflict Transformation

    Turkey’s position bridging Europe, the Middle East and Asia, and its growing economic and political power, make it an increasingly important regional and international actor in terms of security, leadership and governance. Within this context, a particular trend over the last decade has been the increasing leadership role of Turkey in conflict resolution and peacebuilding

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  • The Dynamics And The Roots Of The France’s Security Policy Towards Africa

    France has “special” economic and political relations with Francophone African countries, dating back to the 19th century, and retains its military bases in Gabon, Senegal, the Ivory Coast, Djibouti, and the Central African Republic. France’s security policy towards Africa has changed according to its economic, political and strategic interests. It has been linked with the

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  • French Intervention In Mali: Implications And Consequences

    After pressure on the Provisional Government of Mali and the United Nations for a military intervention, France has a started a military operation called Operation Serval in the north of Mali in January 2013. Operation Serval is much more serving in the interest of France than many pronounced interest of international community. This operation has

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  • Entrepreneurship Insecurity, Smuggling And Cross-Border Dynamics In Central Africa

    Central Africa, as a geopolitical complex1 and security complex, is plagued since independences to the dynamics of insecurity and border smuggling, structured around the mechanic of networks and the entrepreneurship system. This is especially true in the CEMAC zone, where the permeability of intra-regional and interregional borders has become a commonplace. Entrepreneurs of insecurity here

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  • Are Local Government Authorities Sleeping Over Chinese Involvement In Small Scale Mining In Ghana?

    Introduction The upsurge of China’s economic supremacy is being monitored carefully in many parts of the world largely because the impact of this new ‘economic power house’ would have significant implications for developed and developing countries throughout the world. While there are arguments that effective policy reforms may have triggered robust export of Chinese manufactured

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  • The Renewed Federalism and Its Effects on the Represention of Women in Mexico

    Representation, both in presence and in ideas is still a matter of utmost need in countries where sometimes women’s participation in politics is still questioned or limited. In the case of Mexico, both women’s presence and women’s interest are being limited, among other issues, by the institutional design. Two key situations are directly affecting women’s

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  • The Kalchakra Pooja at Bodh Gaya

    The Kalchakra Pooja is supposed to be the most advanced form of Vajrayana practice and is one of the most complex systems in Tantric Buddhism. The present Dalai Lama, the fourteenth is the most prominent Kalchakra lineage holder alive today and has given over thirty Kalchakra initiations all over the world. ‘Presented as ‘Kalchakra for

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  • Revolution

    Watching a TV series is a great time investment compared to enjoying a movie. That is why, I feel quite picky before taking the risk of being a follower of several seasons. After watching NBC’s new TV drama Revolution’s trailer and reading about its plot a bit, I decided to take the risk. I watch

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  • Mexico 2012 The six-year Presidential term that awaits us

    Last July 1 there took place presidential and parliamentarian elections in Mexico. Enrique Peña Nieto was elected, the candidate of the formerly hegemonic Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) that after eighty years in power (1920-2000) and two alternation governments in charge of the right wing National Action Party (PAN) (2000-2006 and 2006-2012) is back on the

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  • Los Angeles

    Los Angeles (LA) is located in Southern California which takes place in the western part of the United States (US). With its 3,792,621 population, it is the second most crowded city in US. However, LA must be considered as a metropolitan area instead of a city. With 18 million inhabitants, the Greater Los Angeles Area,

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