By Nicholas Miller


 

  • Introduction

Within China’s Constitution there is no division of power among the various government levels. According to the Constitution each successive level of government reports to the one above it. China has officially 34 provincial level governments, 300 prefecture level governments, 3,000 county level governments, and 40, 000 township level governments. Within the Central level government contains a mirror version of it within lower level government agencies that is headed by a Party Administrative and governmental head.[1]

All governmental power resides within the Central government and local governments are allowed varying degrees of autonomy.  The reason why powers are separated by Party administrative and governmental head is to prevent an individual from gaining too much power, prevent corruption, and work to promote up and coming provincial leaders. It is the common practice is that the leaders are appointed on rotating a basis and are frequently not from the provinces that are being appointed to work in. Within the county level officials are from the region and it uncommon for them to removed.[2]

The State Council while having authority over local party branches or the governmental leaders there have been problems, as system became decentralized after Mao, of the government controlling the lower levels. The ministries must rely upon the local leaders to faithfully implement any national law or regulation. The Central Party has problems in preventing the local Party Administrators from abusing their power. While there is an attempt to ensure they are rotations in leadership it is not uncommon for leaders to serve as both Party head and governmental head. There has lead to increases in the people’s concern of growing corruption problem within local and county level officials.[3]

Local People’s Congress refers to the state institutions that are below the National People’s Congress. These institutions are in charge of overseeing the various provinces, autonomous regions, and other special municipalities within China.

  • Central Organizations

The Central CPC organizations include the National Congress of the Party and the Central Committee, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and its Standing Committee, the Secretariat, the Central Military Commission and finally the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

National People’s Congress (NPC) 全国人民代表大会

The National Congress of the CPC meets every five years and is the highest leading organization within the CPC. Its examines the reports from the Central Committee and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection; handles the discussions and decisions for the major issues of the Party; revising the Party’s Constitution; and the election of any new Central Committee or new Central Commission for Discipline Inspection members.[4]

Central Committee 中国共党中央委
It is the highest leading body of the CPC while the NPC is not in session. Members and alternate members of the Central Committee have to be Party members for a minimum of five years. The plenary session of the Central Committee meets at least once a year. When the NPC is not in session, the Central Committee is tasked with implementing the decisions of the National Congress, and exercises authority over all work of the Party and represents the CCP when handling foreign affairs.
The Central Politburo of the Communist Party of China 中国共党中央政治局

The Political Bureau of the Central Committee and its Standing Committee is elected by the Plenary Session of the Central Committee. They exercise the functions and powers of the Central Committee when the Central Committee is not in session. The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee handles the routine day-to-day work of the CCP.

The General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee 中国共党中央委总书记

The General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee is the highest position within the CPC Central Committee. The members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau elect the General Secretary during the Plenary Session of the CPC Central Committee. The Party General Secretary is responsible for holding meetings of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and its Standing Committee, and directs the Secretariat of the Central Committee.

Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee 中国共党中央委书记处

The Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee is an administrative body within the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee. Its members are nominated by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and have to be approved by the Plenary Session of the CPC Central Committee.[5]

The Central Military Commission (CMC). 中央事委

The CMC is highest military body within the Party and is subordinate to the CPC Central Committee. It is responsible for handling the armed forces of the PRC. [6]

The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. 中国共党中央 

The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection is the highest body of the Party for discipline inspection.  The commission is subordinate to the CPC Central Committee. Its Standing Committee. The Secretary and Deputy-Secretary are elected during its plenary session and must be approved by the CPC Central Committee.[7]

State Council 

The State Council serves as the government’s highest executive organization and is the CCP highest administrative authority. The State Council is comprised of the Premier, the vice-premiers, and state councillors. The State Council handles the administration of the government’s various ministries and commissions and responsible for ensuring the CCP follows the laws regulations that are passed by the NPC are carried out. The State Council also carried out oversight over foreign affairs, defence, and finance. Within the State Council each term is only five years and cannot serve two consecutive terms.[8]

Supreme People’s Court

The Supreme People’s Court is the highest court in China. It is responsible for handling the major legal cases within the PRC, overseeing the local and special courts, and reviews to the utilizations of nationwide laws. The President Supreme Court is elected through the NPC and is allowed to serve no more then two five year terms.[9]

The US-China Business Council that neatly explains the CCP government structure.

CCP_government_structure

 

Other info can be found here:

http://www.uschina.org/public/china/govstructure/

Central Committee Of the Chinese Communist Party:

Source: http://english.people.com.cn/data/organs/centralcommittee.html

http://www.idcpc.org.cn/english/cpcbrief/cpcprofile.htm

Current Leadership can be found here:

http://www.idcpc.org.cn/english/cpcbrief/leadership/index.htm

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