Genel

SAO PAULO

0

SAO PAULO 

“It can not get any worse”

By Fatih Eren | 29 December 2010


 

Sao_paulo

I am going on analysing localities under global concern. A very problematic city, ‘Sao Paulo’, is going to be examined in detail in this volume.

Sao Paulo is located at the southern part of Brazil. With its population over 20 million, it is the largest metropolitan city of the country as well as the largest city of the South America. Sao Paulo is the gate of Brazil opening to the world. All foreign institutional investors have to visit this city in a way before doing an investment in Brazil because this big metropol is the leading financial, industrial and commercial centre of the country.

Before starting the examination of Sao Paulo as a global city, let’s have a look at the globalisation process of Brazil in general.

The year 1995 became a breaking point for Brazil in terms of globalisation. The State’s protectionist and inward-looking macro-economic policy turned liberal and outward-looking in 1995. In this context, several liberal economic reforms were put into practice after this date in the country. Thanks to these reforms, Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) to the value of 45 billion dollars flew into the country in 2008 whilst the value of inward FDI flows was only 5 billion dollars in 1995.

Because of three main reasons, the Brazilian government has embraced a liberal economic policy since 1995: Firstly, the government wanted to modernize its macro-economy; secondly, it wanted to decrease unemployment rates in the country; and thirdly, it wanted to pay off all its public debt (total public sector debt was standing at more than 60% of GDP in 1995). Namely, the government considered that the only way to achieve these objectives was of attracting foreign finance capital into Brazil.

I could say that Brazil was not a country which submitted herself totally to globalisation process which was experiencing significantly in today’s world; but, it was a country which read this process in a true way. Brazil aimed to turn this process into its advantage so the country displayed a pragmatic attitude during its internationalization process. In other words, it tried to benefit as much as possible from opportunities which were provided by this inevitable process. For example, Brazil is going to host some international sport organizations in the near future (i.e. the World Cup in 2014, the Olympics in 2016). The country is expected to renew its insufficient infrastructure (esp. transportation and social service infrastructures) with foreign finance capital which will be obtained from these international events.

On one hand, Brazil provided her natural and cultural resources for the benefit of transnational investors and then became one of the ‘passive players’ of the globalisation process. On the other hand, Brazil followed a multilateral foreign trade strategy and then developed into a ‘playmaker actor’ which managed the globalisation process actively in the world. In the context of the multilateral foreign trade strategy, Brazil was worked for the realisation of regional integration into the continental of South America (i.e. The Common Market of the South-MERCOSUL, The Union of South American Nations-UNASUR). In addition, the country developed commercial relations with many countries (esp. US, the European Countries, Japan, China) and established diplomatic relations with varied international organizations (i.e. United Nations-UN, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-OECD, The Organization of American States-OAS).

 

Want to Read More? 

Then, Please Click here to Download

 

Political Reflection (PR) Magazine (PDF | 4.638 KB)

 

* Published in the Fourth Issue of Political Reflection Magazine (PR).

 

 

About the author / 

Admin

Leave a reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.

jga bookreview


jga bookreview


cesran_unai


jga bookreview


jga bookreview


jga bookreview


jga bookreview


jga bookreview


jga bookreview


jga bookreview

CESRAN Blog

  • New Issue is Out Now!

    Vol. IV | No. V – October-November-December 2018 To Download the Magazine Click Here… CONTENTS 04-06…..World News by Furkan Sahin  08-20…..Terrorism in Syria and Beyond: An Interview with Prof. Alain Gabon by Dr. Rahman Dag 22-24…..Erdogan’s Best Shot is Still in the West by Dr. Murat Ulgul 26-30…..Raqqa vs Kobani – Terrorism vs Revolution by Dr. Rahman Dag 32-34…..Future of…

  • Domestic Politics and the Design of International Institutions

    Abstract Scholars are increasing focused on how and why states design international institutions. International relations theories have historically guided research on these institutions, but have not provided adequate insights into the theoretical bases for their design. Rationalists’ theories of domestic politics offer an alternative approach to understanding institutional design. This study utilizes the positive theory…

  • Five generations after the Balfour Declaration: How do Palestinians Resist and Engender Significant Social Change?

    How to Cite: SELLICK, P. (2018), Five generations after the Balfour Declaration: How do Palestinians Resist and Engender Significant Social Change?. Journal of Conlicft Transformation and Security, 6(2): 139–142. The context of Israeli expansion and Palestinian dispossession Over the past year, a series of anniversaries has occurred which marks the progressive dispossession and displacement of the Palestinians….

  • CESRAN International named the World’s #83 “Best Independent Think Tank”

    CESRAN International is pleased to announce that it has been named the world’s number 83 “Best Independent Think Tank”. The ranking was announced in the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report compiled by the University of Pennsylvania’s Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the Lauder Institute. CESRAN International was also ranked 77th among the “Top Environment…

  • The Current State of AI as We Begin 2018

    Artificial intelligence (AI) states one recent article is no smarter than a six-year-old. A study that appeared last summer compared the intelligence quotient (IQ) of Google, Apple, Baidu, and Bing AI to the average human 18, 12, and 6-year-olds. The 6-year-old’s IQ was rated at 55.5 while the 12 and 18-year-olds rated 84.5 and 97.0 respectively. The end result rated…