Political Warfare old and new: The State and Private Groups in the Formation of the National Endowment for Democracy

Robert Pee

On June 8 1982, Ronald Reagan gave a

speech to the British Parliament calling for a global crusade for democracy. The practical outcome of this was the creation, in December 1983, of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). The NED was an autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) consisting of four foundations: the National Democratic Institute and National Republican Institute (currently IRI) to dispense funds and training to politicians and political parties in Eastern Europe and the Third World; the Centre for International Private Enterprise to provide training, funding and networking opportunities for business associations; and the AFL-CIO to assist foreign trade unions.


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