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Cesran International

Recent Articles

  • Gendered (In)Securities: Refugee Camps in Southeastern Turkey

    By Dr. Selin Akyüz* and Dr. Bezen Balamir Coşkun** Abstract Academic literature on security and securitization has been criticized for neglecting the significance of gender as a dimension of security. Literature on security within international relations discipline, whether in the West or in Turkey, has been inadequately engaged in analyzing the pervasive insecurities of women

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  • Has China Made Its First Big Military Sale In Central Asia?

    China has reportedly provided both Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan with sophisticated air defense systems, which would represent the largest Chinese military equipment deal thus far in Central Asia. Reportedly, China has provided one battalion each to Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan of the HQ-9 air defense system, as partial payment for natural gas that it imports from Central

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  • The Gangs of Bougainville: Seven Men, Guns and a Copper Mine

    It will be difficult to dispute that the international media determines which conflicts the world follows. Certain armed conflicts (mainly those which involve US or European interests), in the opinion of the international media, merit sustained attention throughout their duration while others barely merit a mention. The Bougainville conflict (often known as ‘the Bougainville Crisis’)

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  • Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Political violence is a broad term that encompasses different types of political action. Political violence can include intra-state or inter-state actions. Flanigan and Fogelman described domestic political violence as coups, rebellions, civil wars, political assassinations, major rioting, etc. [1] However, political violence also encompasses genocide, mass killings, protests, terrorism and other forms of direct action. 

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  • Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Political violence can include intra-state or inter-state actions. Flanigan and Fogelman described domestic political violence as coups, rebellions, civil wars, political assassinations, major rioting, etc. However, political violence also encompasses genocide, mass killings, protests, terrorism and other forms of direct action.  Violence is a form of direct political action used by individuals and governments in

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  • America’s Global Terrorism against Peace

    BY GHALI HASSAN | AUGUST 29, 2012   Terrorism is the “calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to attain goals that are political, religious, or ideological in nature. It is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies”. The U.S. Army Manual Most people associate terrorism with violence allegedly committed by

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  • Tactical Rape as a Threat to International Security: A Norm Develops

    Rape in war has long been a reality. In 1992, after visiting refugee camps and women’s groups in and around Zagreb, a team from international aid agencies reported that women from conflicting parties were, “of course” being raped by opposing combatants; the team had heard, many times, “that’s war” with accompanying shrugs. BY BRENDA FITZPATRICK

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  • Corporate Engagement for Conflict Transformation: Conceptualising the Business-Peace Interface

    Economic issues have been key factors in many conflicts around the globe. Miall affirms that conflicts are inevitably influenced by economic and political forces. Lederach writes that such forces can interdependently contribute to conflict transformation. On occasions corporate actors can be seen to have played decisive roles, both triggering conflicts and transforming conflict. Hence, corporate

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  • Humanitarian Safe Havens: Bosnia’s Lessons for Syria

    BY DR. SONER ÇAĞAPTAY and ANDREW J. TABLER Humanitarian safe havens can protect vulnerable civilians only if backed up with sufficient power. The uprising in Syria has reached a critical stage. As the brutality of the regime has increased, defectors from the military and local groups akin to civilian defense are “liberating,” but not permanently

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  • What should We Expect from the Afghanistan Conference in Bonn?

    Written by PROF. STEFAN WOLFF On 5 December, it will have been ten years since the conclusion of the Bonn Agreement on Afghanistan, and yet another international conference will be held in the former German capital to consider the future of the country. The 2001 Agreement effectively marked the end of the brief US-led campaign against

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  • Once Again, War is Prime Time and Journalism’s Role is Taboo

    Written by JOHN PILGER On 22 May 2007, the Guardian’s front page announced: “Iran’s secret plan for summer offensive to force US out of Iraq.” The writer, Simon Tisdall, claimed that Iran had secret plans to defeat American troops in Iraq, which included “forging ties with al-Qaida elements”. The coming “showdown” was an Iranian plot

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