Cesran International

Recent Articles

  • Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Political violence is a broad term that encompasses different types of political action. Political violence can include intra-state or inter-state actions. Flanigan and Fogelman described domestic political violence as coups, rebellions, civil wars, political assassinations, major rioting, etc. [1] However, political violence also encompasses genocide, mass killings, protests, terrorism and other forms of direct action. 

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  • Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Political violence can include intra-state or inter-state actions. Flanigan and Fogelman described domestic political violence as coups, rebellions, civil wars, political assassinations, major rioting, etc. However, political violence also encompasses genocide, mass killings, protests, terrorism and other forms of direct action.  Violence is a form of direct political action used by individuals and governments in

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  • America’s Global Terrorism against Peace

    BY GHALI HASSAN | AUGUST 29, 2012   Terrorism is the “calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to attain goals that are political, religious, or ideological in nature. It is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies”. The U.S. Army Manual Most people associate terrorism with violence allegedly committed by

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  • Tactical Rape as a Threat to International Security: A Norm Develops

    Rape in war has long been a reality. In 1992, after visiting refugee camps and women’s groups in and around Zagreb, a team from international aid agencies reported that women from conflicting parties were, “of course” being raped by opposing combatants; the team had heard, many times, “that’s war” with accompanying shrugs. BY BRENDA FITZPATRICK

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  • Corporate Engagement for Conflict Transformation: Conceptualising the Business-Peace Interface

    Economic issues have been key factors in many conflicts around the globe. Miall affirms that conflicts are inevitably influenced by economic and political forces. Lederach writes that such forces can interdependently contribute to conflict transformation. On occasions corporate actors can be seen to have played decisive roles, both triggering conflicts and transforming conflict. Hence, corporate

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  • Humanitarian Safe Havens: Bosnia’s Lessons for Syria

    BY DR. SONER ÇAĞAPTAY and ANDREW J. TABLER Humanitarian safe havens can protect vulnerable civilians only if backed up with sufficient power. The uprising in Syria has reached a critical stage. As the brutality of the regime has increased, defectors from the military and local groups akin to civilian defense are “liberating,” but not permanently

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  • What should We Expect from the Afghanistan Conference in Bonn?

    Written by PROF. STEFAN WOLFF On 5 December, it will have been ten years since the conclusion of the Bonn Agreement on Afghanistan, and yet another international conference will be held in the former German capital to consider the future of the country. The 2001 Agreement effectively marked the end of the brief US-led campaign against

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  • Once Again, War is Prime Time and Journalism’s Role is Taboo

    Written by JOHN PILGER On 22 May 2007, the Guardian’s front page announced: “Iran’s secret plan for summer offensive to force US out of Iraq.” The writer, Simon Tisdall, claimed that Iran had secret plans to defeat American troops in Iraq, which included “forging ties with al-Qaida elements”. The coming “showdown” was an Iranian plot

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  • The European Union’s South Ossetia Dilemma

    Written by PROF. STEFAN WOLFF Saturday, 03 December 2011 16:15 If it wasn’t for the potentially serious ramifications of a further escalation of the current election crisis in South Ossetia, the situation would be laughable. But even though, it is not without certain ironies. Moscow’s preferred candidate in the presidential run-off on 27 November, emergency

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  • A New War on Terror?

    By AZEEM IBRAHIM | 26.09.2011 Just when the threat of Islamist terrorism seemed to be successfully suppressed, the actions of Breivik bring awareness of the evil engendered by other extremist ideologies. When a Muslim terrorist commits an act of violence, Muslims all over the world tend to be blamed. As soon as an outrage is

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  • Awake O Ye Silent Religions and Promote Post-Conflict Reconciliation!

    Towards an Understanding of the Role of Religion in Peace Building in Kenya* BY DR. SUSAN M. KILONZO** | 07.06.2011 The announcement in the late afternoon of 30 December 2007, of President Mwai Kibaki as the ultimate winner of the highly contested Kenyan presidential elections by 231,728 votes over the Orange Democratic Movement’s (ODM) candidate

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  • Conceptualising the Land-Conflict-Restitution Nexus: the Case of Cyprus*

    BY PROF. ROGER ZETTER** | 05.06.2011 All refugees and displaced persons have the right to have restored to them any housing, land and/or property of which they were arbitrarily or unlawfully deprived, or to be compensated for any housing, land and/or property that is factually impossible to restore as determined by an independent, impartial tribunal.

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  • Burning the Bridges and Breaking the Bonds: Social Capital and its Transformative Influence in Relation to Violent Conflict*

    BY DR. RICHARD BOWD** | 05.06.2011   Perhaps the most well known academic writing on social capital is Robert D. Putnam who defines social capital as consisting of “the features of social organisation, such as networks, norms and trust, that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit”[1].  Throughout his work Putnam argues that social interaction

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